# Aggregate functions

Aggregate functions perform statistical analysis on numbers (and dates or times for some functions) in:

• several fields in a record.
• related fields whether displayed in a portal or not.
• repeating fields.

For example, you can use the `Sum` function to add the values listed in a portal, as an alternative to creating a report with grouped data and subtotals.

The parameter values can include a numeric constant (for example, 10) or any valid expression. A constant parameter in a formula for a repeating field affects the result for every repetition.

When repeating field parameters (field1; field2;...) include a non-repeating field, that value is used in the result for only the first repetition unless you use the Extend function.

Values in repetitions that exceed the number of repetitions in the calculated field are ignored. For example, a calculated field with three repetitions holds only three results, even when one field referenced in the calculation has five repetitions.

 Function Purpose Returns a value that is the average of all valid, non-blank values in a field. Returns the number of valid, non-blank values in a field. Returns a concatenated list of non-blank values for a field or fields. Returns the highest valid value in a field. Returns the smallest valid, non-blank value in a field. Returns the standard deviation of the sample represented by a series of non-blank values in a field. Returns the standard deviation of a population represented by a series of non-blank values in a field. Returns the total of all valid, non-blank values in a field. Returns the variance of a sample represented by a series of non-blank values in a field. Returns the variance of a population represented by a series of non-blank values in a field.